Jobscore V4 Manual

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Functional Breadth - Term Definitions

Term Definition
Organisation

A separately identifiable entity; usually free-standing and self contained in terms of all functional activities such as product/service production/delivery, sales and marketing, purchasing, research and development including business planning, finance and accounting, information systems development and management, administration, human resources management, and stakeholder relations. All these activities may be conducted within the bounds of the organisation's structure, alternatively some may be provided by a parent or associated organisation, or be outsourced. Examples of organisations include a subsidiary company, partnership, co-operative, institution, or government body such as a City Council (but not a not government department). The organisation may be owned by a single individual, family, or shareholders/stakeholders. The organisation to consider when evaluating a particular job is the largest entity upon which the position could reasonably have any measurable impact.

Business Unit

Part of a larger organisation that is to some degree self contained, but not free-standing. Has its own profit and loss statement, or budget/expenditure schedule in the case of not-for-profit units. Usually caters to a specific market on either a product or geographic basis. May include its own marketing and finance sections. Frequently a separate entity for accounting purposes. Maintains and follows its own centrally approved business plan. Follows corporate policies. May be a joint venture.

Fully Developed/Complete Function

An organisational function deals with a specific area of the organisation's activity. The various functions within an organisation can vary in terms of its complexity and size. The nature of the organisation's primary activity also influences this mix of size and complexity. For a job function within an organisation to be classified as 'fully developed' it should be made up of separate subordinate sections each specialising in the various activities of the function. A fully developed marketing function would include for example separate departments covering market research, product development, advertising and promotion, a sales branch structure, warehousing and distribution. A fully developed manufacturing function would include for example separate departments covering manufacturing production, product and manufacturing process research and development, production engineering and maintenance engineering, materials handling including possibly warehousing and distribution. A fully developed finance function would include for example separate departments covering financial accounting, management accounting, auditing, taxation, and treasury. A fully developed human resources function would include for example separate sections covering salary administration, training and development, recruiting, employee relations, OH&S, and possibly general administration. It is usual that separate, fully developed functions only exist in large organisations.

Primary Function

Part of an organisation that deals with a primary aspect of the organisation's activities, such as marketing, finance, manufacturing, service delivery, or engineering, AND reports directly to the head of the organisation, AND constitutes a substantially complete range of subordinate departments each dealing with specific areas of activity within the function.

Incomplete Primary Function

Part of an organisation that deals with a primary aspect of the organisation's activities but does not comprehensively include subordinate parts dealing with specific areas of activity within the function, AND reports directly to the head of the organisation. Here some aspects of the function's activities (especially the more specialised aspects) may be bought in, outsourced, or be provided by a parent organisation.

Support Function

Part of an organisation that specialises in an aspect of the organisation and is lesser in size and complexity relative to the primary functions. The function would constitute a substantially complete range of subordinate departments each dealing with specific areas of activity within the function. The function may not report directly to the head of the organisation. These functions are frequently in a support role to the organisation's primary purpose. Examples can include individual departments covering information services, human resources management, and administrative services.

Incomplete Support Function

Part of an organisation that specialises in an aspect of the organisation's activities but does not comprehensively include subordinate parts dealing with specific areas of activity within the function. Here some aspects of the function's activities may be bought in, outsourced, or be provided by a parent organisation.

Part of a Function

A subordinate section of a complete function. The structure of such part of a function would include a department/section head that may be a specialist in the particular area, supported by a department structure. For example, subordinate parts of a finance and accounting function could include taxation, auditing, management accounting, and treasury as separate departments.

Activity

An activity within a function, eg in finance, an accounts payable section; in engineering, a drafting section.

Service Unit

A part of an organisation that provides a specialised service to members of the organisation where the service is not part of the organisation's mainstream activity. Examples include operation of a staff credit union, health insurance fund, executive motor vehicle fleet, and staff canteens. The service unit would normally be dependent on the parent organisation for all support functions, and be bound by parent organisation policies.

Specialist
(high level)

Manages the provision to the organisation of an identifiable specialist skill, eg Taxation Specialist, Quality Assurance Manager, Hospital Pharmacist, Legal Counsel.

Specialist

A specialist role such as a senior technical sales representative, human resources officer, specialist nurse, or high level secretary/personal assistant.

Term Definition
Very Small Organisation

The organisation consists of an organisation head, usually holding the majority of the expertise in the organisation, possibly assisted by a small number of non-professional level support staff (usually clerical or trades employees). In these organisations the organisation head usually carries out the primary marketing, product development, and more important administrative activities, and is usually the main operative. All specialist services such as accounting are purchased from external providers. The organisation does not have a functional structure and usually all employees report directly to the organisation head. Business in normally conducted from one primary location. The organisation head may also be its sole owner.

Small Organisation

The organisation consists of an organisation head, usually holding the majority of the expertise in the organisation, and supported by a small number of fully professional employees (eg engineers, computer specialists, medical staff, artists), plus clerical and possibly trades level support staff. Here, some functions such as marketing, product development and the delivery of primary services are shared between the organisation head and professional level employees. Department structure is still not evident although support staff may report to professional level employees rather than directly to the head of the organisation. Essentially the organisation consists of a group of professionals supported by a pool of lower level staff. Clerical level employees carry out most administrative activities and specialised services such as accounting are purchased from external providers. Business is generally conducted from one location. The organisation head may be the sole owner; professional level employees in the organisation may be part owners.

Intermediate Organisation

A complete organisation where a functional structure and some specialist support staff are included, such as a qualified accountant. The organisation may conduct activities from more than one location, ie may have more than one outlet; eg a separate office and warehouse. Not all functions are present, and those that are, are not complete. Each function that is present usually consists of a single specialist who may be supported by lower level staff that work solely within the function, eg accountant with subordinate accounts clerks. Here, the functional expertise is vested in the functional head. An example of such an organisation is one constituted as follows: the head of the organisation, a pool of administrative staff, a fully qualified accountant supported by accounts clerks, a service delivery functional head supported by service delivery staff, a marketing head usually with no subordinate staff. There would not, for example, be a separately identifiable human resources function.

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